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Julius Caesar
Welcome to Study Guides 101
Julius Caesar

Acts I - V


1.        tributaries - subordinates

2.        servile - subservient

3.        construe - interpret

4.        cogitations - thoughts

5.        accoutred - equipped

6.        encompass - surround

7.        loath - reluctant

8.        prodigious - extraordinary

9.        redress - make amends for

10.     infirmity­ - weakness

11.     augment - increase

12.     insurrection - rebellion

13.     affability - amiability

14.     visage - face

15.     augurer - one who predicts

16.     fray - brawl

17.     dank - disagreeably moist

18.     vile - evil

19.     constancy - faithfulness

20.     chide - scold

21.     puissant - mighty

22.     firmament - heavens

23.     abridged - shortened

24.     grievous - severe

25.     arbor - garden

26.     extenuated - diminished

27.     bondman - slave

28.     prostrate - lying face down

29.     enfranchise - liberate

30.     unassailable - invincible

31.     provender - animal food

32.     covert - hidden

33.     choleric - hot-tempered

34.     waspish - disagreeable

35.     apparition - phantom

36.     testy - irritable

37.     taper - candle

38.     vexed - angered

39.     insupportable - unbearable

40.     chastisement - punishment

41.     cur - mongrel, contemptible person

42.     demeanor - bearing or behavior

43.     perceive - understand

44.     tarry - wait

45.     suffice - satisfy

46.     presage - foreshadow

47.     peevish - fretful

48.     apt - suitable

49.     engendered - produced

50.     garland - wreath


Act I

Scene I

-          It takes place in Rome 44 B.C., in the streets of Rome.

-          Flavius and Marullus are tribunes.

-          A cobbler is a shoemaker.

-          A mender of bad soles is a pun, or a play on words. (A mender of bad souls)

-          The cobbler is insulting the tribune.

-          William Shakespeare loves to use puns.

-          The awl is the cobblers tool.

-          The cobbler is comparing himself to a doctor.

-          The cobbler is a knave; he is crafty and fresh.

-          The tribunes insult the commoners, because they used to like Pompey and pay tribute to him, and they now pay tribute to Caesar for killing Pompey.

-          Flavius tells Marullus to tell commoners to stop cheering Caesar on.

-          Caesar is compared to a bird; if his feathers are plucked, hell not fly, and hell fall, and his power will be lost.

Scene II

-          A paradox is a statement that seems to conflict with common sense or to contradict itself but that may nevertheless be true.

-          The scene takes place on the streets of Rome.

-          Caesar wants Antony to touch Calphurnia so she will no longer be barren; he is superstitious.  This is because the elders say that if a barren woman is touched by a holy runner, she will become pregnant.

-          Caesar is full of himself.

-          Caesar thinks hes indestructible, invincible, and cannot die.

-          Brutus thinks that Antony is gamesome.  His view of Antony will become important later.  He will underestimate Antonys power.

-          Cassius senses a distance between him and his friends (Brutus).

-          Brutus takes the responsibility for changing and becoming distant from Cassius.

-          Brutus admits that he is at war with himself; he has an inner conflict concerning Caesar and his view of Caesar.  He admits that he has an inner conflict.  He has an opinion of Caesar, but he doesnt know what to do with it.  On one hand, he feels that Caesar is too ambitious and has become too powerful.  On the other hand, he wants to remain Caesars best friend and not tell him in fear that Caesar may become angry and kill him.

-          Cassius asks Brutus if he sees what others see in him.  Of course, Brutus does not know, so Cassius acts as Brutuss mirror.

-          Cassius flatters Brutus so he might join his side.

-          Cassius tells Brutus that everyone but Caesar thought that Brutus should open his eyes wider, so he might see that Caesar is becoming too powerful.

-          Cassius says that he loves humanity.

-          L. 85-86: These lines show what Brutuss inner conflict is he wonders whether to tell Caesar that he is too powerful and get killed or be turned against, or just leave things be.

-          Caesar only listens to what he wants to hear; his deafness in one ear symbolizes this.

-          Cassius is manipulating Brutus with flattery.

-          Brutus does not fear death; he fears not having honor.

-          Cassius tells Brutus that Caesar isnt all that great; Brutus and Caesar are at the same level.  However, internally, Cassius thinks that he is on the same level or higher than Caesar.

-          The water is cold and stormy.  Caesar asks Cassius to rescue him.  He does; now Caesar is godlike, and now Cassius has to bow to him, even though he saved Caesars life.  Cassius is jealous of Caesars power; he wants it.

-          Everything Caesar said was recorded, yet Caesar had epilepsy fit and screamed and yelled like a woman.  Women were lowly regarded back then.

-          Cassius says that Caesar is so weak, yet he has so much power in his hands.

-          Cassius is green with envy.

-          Cassius blames himself that Caesar was still in power.

-          Cassius says that Caesars name is just as honorable as Brutuss name, while he was thinking that his was as honorable as Caesars.

-          Brutus would rather be a peasant and be loyal to Rome than not be.

-          Caesar has a huge ego and says that he shouldnt fear Cassius, but if he had to fear someone, it would be him (Caesar).

-          Fat, in this context, means content.  Caesar wants men that are content with their power and will not revolt because they think Caesar has too much power.

-          Sleek-headed means bald, with nothing on their head, with no worries.  Caesar wants men that have no worries, and will not think of revolting.

-          Sleep-a-night men can sleep soundly without worry.  They will not think about revolting.

-          The falling sickness, or epilepsy, shows weakness, and it symbolizes the fall of power.

-          Caesar was offered crown, but he declined so the crowds cheered, which meant that they really didnt want him as king.  Caesar had wanted the crowds to think that he was modest, but it didnt work.  He then became angry, and offered Casca to cut his throat and kill him, but then he had epilepsy fit.

-          To put to silence means to kill, cut off the tongue, imprison, or take the power of.

-          Brutus says that Antony is a person that you cant really take seriously.

-          Brutus is more stiff and formal with Cassius.

-          Brutus is afraid of being dishonorable.  This foreshadows that Brutus would commit suicide for his love of Rome, which he will do.

-          L. 146: Cassius says, Men at some time which means that you can change fate, and that you should be in control of your own life.  He wants to take Caesars power.

-          Cassius says that Brutuss ancestors would have taken Caesars power away.  Cassius is saying that Brutuss ancestors drove out a tyrant, and that Brutus should do the same to Caesar.

-          Caesar says that Cassius is dangerous because he wants to obtain Caesars power.  He is skinny and hungry for Caesars power.

-          Antony didnt think that Cassius was a threat to Caesar.  He tells Caesar not to worry.

-          Caesar has a huge ego, and thinks that he is immortal.

-          Caesar doesnt fear Cassius, and he says that Cassius is educated, but doesnt smile much.

-          Caesar wanted to the crown, but refused it so that the crowd would think that he was modest.  When the crowd clapped, he got angry and opened his cloak and told Casca to cut his throat, which Casca wanted to do.

-          The citizens forgave Caesar for making a fool of him because they loved Caesar.

-          Three girls from the crowd loved Caesar, and even if he had stabbed their mother, they would still have loved him.

-          Casca said, Its Greek to me, which means that he didnt understand.

-          Quick-mettle means quick-witted and sharp.

-          Cassius says that Casca is crabby.

-          L. 320: Cassiuss soliloquy begins.

-          Cassius says that he can manipulate Brutus.

-          Cassius says that he can get anyone to do anything he wants.

-          Cassius is going to throw notes through Brutuss window, saying that Brutus can save Rome from Caesar and his ambition.  Supposedly, the letters will be from the Roman citizens, forged by Cassius.

-          Brutus is noble and tremendously na´ve.

-          Cassius blames himself that Caesar is still in power and in charge.

-          Cassius says that a younger Brutus wouldnt have let a dictator rule.  In saying this, he is telling Brutus to take action against Caesar.

-          L. 202: Caesar says that he wants people who are content with their power.

-          L. 203: Caesar wants people who dont worry about things and taking his power.

-          L. 204: Caesar says that Cassius is hungry for his power.

-          L. 205: Caesar says that Cassius thinks too much and sees Caesars wrong in ruling.

-          Caesar has a big ego, and says that hes not afraid of Cassius because hes Caesar.

-          L. 223: This shows that Caesar does have a weakness and is not immortal.  His deafness symbolizes that he listens to only what he wants to here.  His epilepsy symbolizes his fall from power.

-          Casca would have killed Caesar if he had time.

-          Flavius and Marullus are silenced, and this gives the conspirators a reason to go out and take action.  They are silenced because they took down Caesars images in the streets.

-          L. 320-324: Cassius says that he can manipulate Brutus, even though he is honorable.

Scene III

-          Cicero is an orator that also dislikes Caesar.

-          Casca says that this storm is the fiercest he has ever seen before, and he has seen his share of fierce storms.

-          Casca thinks that there is unrest in the heavens, and it parallels the unrest in the Roman republic.

-          Casca saw four portentous events: a slave with his left hand burning, but it didnt burn or scorch.  He also saw a lion that didnt bother him and just passed him by in the Capitol.  He saw that a hundred women viewed men on fire walking up and down the streets.  Finally, he saw an owl in the marketplace during day, shrieking and hooting.

-          Casca is extremely superstitious, but Cicero is not.  Cicero says that Casca may have misunderstood what he saw, and that everything has an explicable reason for it.

-          Casca openly shows Cassius that he is superstitious because he thinks that the weather is affected by the gods actions and feelings.

-          Cassius will use Cascas superstition to manipulate him.

-          Cassius says that the reason for Cascas viewings of odd events is because of the state of Romes politics.  It is because of Caesars actions and because Caesar is on the throne.

-          Cassius says that they look like their forefathers, but act like their mothers, and have womanish traits; defeated.

-          Cassius will kill himself if Caesar is crowned.  This foreshadows that Cassius will commit suicide if something big happens, which he does.

-          Cassius says that he can easily shake off his bondage by killing himself.

-          Casca says that anyone who wants to be free can commit suicide if Caesar is crowned.

Act II

-          Brutus talks about Caesar.  He is afraid that Caesar may become king.

-          It is one or two in the morning.

-          An adder is a king of snake.

-          Brutus says that the abuse of greatness is when you dont have any feelings for anyone or anything because you have so much power.

-          L. 23: Brutus says that if you are low, you will want to climb the ladder of success. Having no power is why people want to climb the ladder.

-          Caesar is on the ladder.  When he reaches the top, he scorns at the people lower than him, and turns his back on the people that helped him get there.

-          Brutus says that if Caesar is crowned, it will be much more than it is now, and he will turn his back even more.

-          Being crowned would be hatching the serpent.  If Caesar hatches, or is crowned, hell become powerful and dangerous.

-          Brutus says that they need to kill Caesar before he hatches, or before he receives his power and crown.

-          Lucius found the letter from Cassius.

-          Brutus is, figuratively, sleeping.  The letter tells him to open his eyes and see whats happening around him.

-          Speak, strike, redress!  Speak means to speak out against Caesar.  Strike means to take action.  Redress means to rectify, or justify Caesars bad actions.

-          Brutuss ancestors drove out Tarquin.

-          Brutus promises that hell return justice to Rome.

-          Cassius instigated the conspiracy.

-          A dreadful thing is the murder of Caesar.

-          The conspiracy has been a nightmare for Brutus.

-          The conspirators are in disguise going to Brutuss home.

-          Brutus asks why the members of the faction are disguising themselves.  He says they should be kind and affable to avoid suspicion.  Their current disguise is noticeable.

-          The conspirators are still kissing up to Brutus.

-          Cassius introduces the conspirators to Brutus.

-          The conspirators are arguing about where the sun rises, which seems insignificant since they are going to kill someone today.

-          Brutus tells the conspirators to put their hands together, and Cassius suggests that they swear an oath.

-          Brutus says that if they dont have a strong motive, they should go home.  He assumes that theyre in the conspiracy because they need to get rid of a tyrant and save Rome.  However, they all have their own agendas.

-          Brutus says that they do not need an oath to validate the conspiracy, because their motives are true and pure.

-          Brutus thinks that they are all honest and have the same motive as he.  He cannot imagine them having other motives to kill Caesar.

-          Brutus is the only one there with true motives, an honorable motive.  The others have their own reasons, and they are all weak motives.  They are not going for honorable reasons.

-          Cassius suggests that Cicero join the conspiracy, but Brutus again vetoes it, because Cicero will not listen.  He is a leader.

-          Silver hairs means old and wise.  Metellus says that Cicero will be helpful because hes wise and stable.

-          Metellus says that they are young and their judgment might look immature, but if Cicero is in, hell make it look good because hes old.  In essence, he could be the second alchemy.

-          Cicero is a leader, not a follower.  Cicero may not listen and do what they want, and he may discover their true motives.

-          Brutus doesnt want Cicero in the conspiracy because Cicero might become more honorable than Brutus.

-          Power corrupts those who hold it.  Brutus is starting to become corrupt with the power he holds.

-          Cassius thought he would be the master puppeteer.  However, Brutus becomes powerful and makes several decisions, such as vetoing Cassiuss suggestions.

-          Brutus is a terrible strategist.  The ideas he vetoes were good ideas.

-          Decius asks if Caesar should be the only one killed.

-          Cassius suggests killing Antony because hes Caesars good friend.  Antony might come after the conspirators to annoy them if he is not killed, which he does.

-          Brutus says that if they kill Antony, it may look like revenge, not a purge.  There will be too much death and bloodshed, and they will look like murderers instead of purgers.

-          Antony is a limb of Caesar; he cant live without him.

-          Brutus underestimates Antony because he is gamesome.

-          Brutus says lets be purifiers, not killers.

-          Brutus agrees that Caesar has to die, but that they should kill him honorably, not wrathfully.  Carve him to make him fit for the gods, not to be something one might throw to the dogs.  This is for honor, not envy.

-          Brutus didnt want to unnecessarily kill innocent men.  He was the honest man with true motives.

-          Not killing Antony was a huge mistake.

-          Cassius was afraid of Antony because he loves Caesar.

-          Brutus underestimates Antony.  He thinks that the most he will do is kill himself if Caesar dies, because he cant live without Caesar.

-          Brutus says that Antony is devoted only to sports, wildness, and company.

-          Trebonius says that Antony will later laugh at Caesars death.

-          Cassius thinks that Caesar may not come to the Capitol because he may be afraid of the soothsayers warning.

-          Decius says that hell flatter Caesar so hell come to the Capitol.  Caesar says that he hates flatterers, but truthfully, he loves to be flattered.

-          Metellus will get Ligarius in the conspiracy because Ligarius hates Caesar.

-          Brutus tells the conspirators to be actors, and not to look like theyre going to do something evil.

-          Brutus asks his wife, Portia, why she is up so early, since it is so early, since it is so early and so cold for her weak body.

-          Portia argues that he shouldnt be up, and asks what the matter was.  Brutus was upset; he had his arms folded, didnt eat, was ungentle, and he was more impatient than usual.  She had left him alone, but to no avail.

-          Brutus is not eating or sleeping; Portia asks what his grief was.

-          Portia says that Brutus would go to a doctor if he were sick.

-          Portia knows that it is not a physical sickness, but an emotional problem that she should know about.

-          Portia knows something is up, because she saw the conspirators strangely dressed, and Brutus is acting oddly.

-          Portia feels that she has a right to know his secret because she has been faithful to him.

-          Portia says that she will not tell his secrets.  Constancy in this case means loyalty.  She stabbed herself in the thigh to show her loyalty and faithfulness.

-          Stabbing herself means that if she can endure the physical pain, she can also endure the emotional pain, and share the pain together with Brutus.

-          Brutus promises to tell her his secrets, but after he sees to his guest.

-          Ligarius says that hell join the conspiracy.

-          Brutus says that they should kill Caesar; it will make sick men whole.  This means that men that are sick of Caesar will become whole after Caesars death.

-          Ligarius says that killing Caesar will also make whole men sick.  Marc Antony, like others who really like Caesar, will become sick.

-          Ligarius says that he doesnt know exactly what hes supposed to do, but he will follow Brutus and all of his directions.

Scene II

-          Calpurnia had a nightmare that Caesar was killed.

-          Priests used to kill animals and make predictions from the animals body.

-          Calpurnia tells Caesar not to go out of the house.

-          Caesar says that he will go out.  He says that when they see him, theyll disappear.  He think hes a god; immortal.

-          Calpurnia dreamt that a lioness (viewed as dangerous) conceived of a child in the streets.  This is symbolic of the birth of danger.  The dead came alive and started walking.  People in the heavens fought each other, and blood fell on the Capitol.  Ghosts shrieked about the streets.

-          Caesar says that the predictions are for everyone but not him, because he is Caesar.

-          Calpurnia says that omens only tell deaths of important people like Caesar.

-          L. 34-35 If you live your life in fear of death, youre already dead because you dont live your life.  The brave live life to the fullest and die only once, at their natural deaths.  The cowards die every time they are afraid of death.  Death will come to all; it is inevitable.

-          This is ironic because Caesar thinks hes immortal, and he tells others not to fear death.

-          The beast with no heart is supernatural because it couldnt live without its heart.

-          L. 47-48 Caesar says that hes more dangerous than danger itself.

-          Caesar says that he is older than danger.  He makes it that danger is his twin, but Caesar is older and stronger than danger.

-          Caesars ego is seen in this quote.

Scene III

-          Artemidorus says that if Caesar isnt immortal, be careful and alert.  He tells Caesar not to be so cocky and arrogant, and watch out.

-          Artemidorus mourns that righteousness cannot live because so many are envious of their power.

-          L. 15-16: Artemidorus said that if Caesar read his letter, he might live.  If not, it is in fates hands.

Scene IV

-          Portia is so confused and crazy.  She tells Lucius to go to the Senate House, then asks him why he is still staying there.  Lucius responds that he doesnt know what hes supposed to do there.

-          L. 8: The huge mountain is to block Portia from telling anyone about the conspiracy.  Shakespeare hated women, and portrayed them as weak and gossipy.

-          L. 11: Lucius still has no idea what hes supposed to do.

-          L. 16: Brutus was sickly because he had to kill his best friend.

-          Portia hears a noise, and she thinks that they have already killed Caesar.

-          The soothsayer says that he will beg Caesar to trust him and listen to his warnings and help himself.

-          The soothsayer is not sure, but he is fearful that Caesar may die today.

-          The soothsayer says that the crowd that follows Caesar could kill a man.  He wants to talk to Caesar, but there are so many people around him that he cant talk to him.  He will wait in a place where the crowds are not so thick before approaching him.

-          Brutus desires that Caesar be not so ambitious, but Caesar will obviously not grant his request.


Scene I

-          Caesar ignores the soothsayer and Artemidoruss letter, so he cant be saved.

-          Cassius says that if Caesar finds out, he may kill himself instead of letting others kill him.

-          Cassius is afraid that Popilius may tell Caesar, because then Caesar will kill himself.   This way, it will look more honorable, like he wanted to end his life.

-          Trebonius was going to take Antony away so that Antony wouldnt be there at the assassination of Caesar.

-          Metelluss brother is Publius Cimber.  Metelluss true reason for killing Caesar is because his brother has been banished from Rome, and Caesar will not let him back in.

-          Caesar tells Cimber that although he is being flattered, he will not let Publius back into Rome.

-          Caesar says that he is as constant as the Northern Star.  He is not going to change his mind.  The conspirators then kill him, proving Caesar completely incorrect.

-          Caesar is in disbelief that his best friend plotted to kill him.

-          Caesar thinks that it if his best friend wants to kill him, then there is no point in living.  This is why he says, Then fall, Caesar; he completely gives up on life at this point.

-          The conspirators are very proud of what they did to Caesar, and how they saved Rome from tyranny.

-          Doomsday means the end of the earth.

-          Brutus asks of fate what will happen to them.  He says that he and everyone will die; the question is when.

-          Brutus says that there will be a time when we fear death.  He says that the conspirators have done Caesar a favor by killing him; he only feared death in the last few moments of his life.

-          Brutus tells the conspirators to bathe their hands in Caesars blood, to show off to the common people their noble deed.

-          Brutus says that in later years, people will reenact Caesars death many times for fun.

-          Cassius says that they will be honored later for giving their country liberty.  However, they are now viewed as conspirators that killed a man viciously.

-          Antonys servant comes and says that Antony and Brutus are still in good terms, and that Antony will follow Brutus all the way.  This is obviously not true.  Antony is going to ask the conspirators why they killed Caesar.

-          Antony is wise; he sends a servant to get the conspirators to vouch for his safety instead of going to them by himself.  He might have died if he had gone alone.

-          Brutus says that Antony is wise and brave.  He invites Antony, and gives his word that Antony will leave without a scratch.

-          Cassius still doesnt trust Antony, and wonders what Antonys true motives are.

-          Antony asks the conspirators if they will kill anyone else, talking about himself.  He can be cocky, because he has Brutuss vouch for his safety.

-          Antony says that if he lived a thousand years, he would want to die honorably, next to Caesar.

-          Cassius says that Antony will get equal power in the new government if he sides with them.

-          Brutus felt pity for Caesar because he had to die, but more pity for Rome. Because of their greater for Rome, they had to kill Caesar.

-          Antony says that he is on thin ice, because the conspirators either think hes a coward or a flatterer.

-          Antony says that if the conspirators and he are friends, it will help Rome.  Of course, this is not true; he says it just to help him avenge Caesars death.

-          In truth, Antony hates the conspirators.

-          Antony says that it is not enough just to praise Caesar; he was much more worthy for simply that.

-          Antony calls the conspirators hunters, and called Caesar the hunted.

-          Brutus still thinks that the conspirators have noble reasons, the same reason as he has.

-          Brutus says that Antony, if he were the son of Caesar, would accept their noble motives.

-          The conspirators took the motive as a pretext, instead of their own unworthy motives.  Their intentions were to gain power and for other personal reasons.  However, they used the reason of saving Rome from tyranny as a cover-up.

-          Antony asks to speak at Caesars funeral.

-          Cassius tells Brutus that if they let Antony speak at the funeral, he might expose the conspiracy and turn the people against them, especially since the people are so fickle.

-          Brutus says that hell be the first one to speak and tell their reasons for killing Caesar.  Antony can only speak by their permission.  It would do them an advantage if Antony speaks, or so they think.  They are wrong, obviously.  The one with the last word usually wins.

-          Cassius is still fearful of what may happen, but like always, he gives in to Brutus.

-          Brutus tells Antony the conditions of his speech: Antony may not blame the conspirators.  He is to speak good of Caesar, not turn the crowd against the conspirators blatantly.  He must tell the crowd that it is by the conspirators permission that he may speak, and speak at the same pulpit as Brutus, right after him.

-          Antony later will abide by these rules, but use sarcasm and repetition to turn the people against the conspirators.

-          Antony says that they are all butchers of Caesar.  This shows that he will get back at them.

-          Antony says that there will be some much civil unrest and strife.

-          Ate is the goddess of discord and vengeance.

-          Letting slip the dogs of war is like unleashing destruction.

-          Antony is releasing destruction to avenge Caesars death.

-          Antony says that people will be screaming to die and be buried; the times will become this bad that people will want to die.

-          Antony is a very vindictive man for the revenge of Caesars death.  He becomes very ruthless, as opposed to the gamesome spirit seen before.

-          Octaviuss servant did not know of Caesars death until now.

-          Caesar had told Octavius to come visit him before this day.

-          Antony tells Octaviuss servant to tell Octavius not to come because of what has happened.  They need to clean it up and make it less chaotic before Octavius comes.

Scene II

-          The plebeians ask for a reason for Caesars death.

-          Since they had no megaphones in that time, the crowd was split into Cassius and Brutus, so everyone could hear their story.

-          Brutuss speech is spoken all in prose, to show that his speech was plain and regular.

-          Brutus says that he loved Caesar, but loved Rome more.

-          Brutus asked rhetorical questions, questions that could not be answered.

-          Brutus says that if Caesar had been alive, they would have died slaves.

-          Brutus said that he killed Caesar for his ambition.

-          Brutus asks who is not patriotic and has no pride for Rome.

-          Brutus says that if they were he, they would have done the same.

-          Brutus said that he would be happy to kill himself if Rome wanted him dead.

-          The plebeians learned nothing. They had no brains. They wanted Brutus as the Caesar, and to be a dictator like Caesar had been.

-          Brutus leaves and tells the crowd to listen to Antony.

-          Antony says that the evil things are remembered, but the good deeds that we do are buried with the good people.

-          Caesar answered death for his fault of ambition.

-          Antony disproves Caesars ambition by saying that:

o         Caesar, when he brought slaves from a foreign land, put the ransom in Romes treasury instead of keeping the money for himself.

o         Caesar had cried for the sorrows of the people; he cared for them and was not like stone. If he was ambitious, he would have cared only for himself.

o         Antony had given Caesar the crown three times, but Caesar had refused it. If he were ambitious, he would have taken the crown.

o         Caesar had left the Roman plebeians in his will, showing that he loved them and wanted only the best for them.

-          Antony weeps to show the crowd that he is mourning, but he is just faking it.

-          The plebeians are so fickle; they favored Brutus before, but now, they believe that Caesar was not ambitious.

-          Antony uses sarcasm; he totally wanted to do the conspirators wrong.

-          Antony is stirring up the crowd. He told the crowd that it was good that they did not know that they were Caesars heirs. Through doing this, he stirred them up, and the plebeians, greedy, wanted to know what was in store for them. Caesars money enticed the crowd.

-          Antony sways the crowd and tells them that he may have wronged honorable men, but the plebeians quickly say that the conspirators were traitors.

-          Antony showed the crowd Caesars wounds, and called Brutus Caesars angel.

-          Antony said that Caesar was overcome when Brutus was in the crowd killing him.

-          The unkindest cut was Brutuss stab, because Brutus was Caesars best friend.

-          Caesar had died at Pompeys statue.

-          Antony says that the conspirators flourished over everyone else.

-          Antony tells the crowd that they should not get revenge on the conspirators. They had personal griefs to kill Caesar.

-          Antony says that he doesnt know why the men killed Caesar, but that he is sure that they will tell why.

-          Antony says that the conspirators have private reasons, which means that they had lied before about their motive being to bring justice to Rome.

-          Antony says that he is not as good an orator as Brutus; he is being incredibly modest. He is far superior to Brutus in giving speeches.

-          Antony says that if he was Brutus, then he could make the crowd crazy. But since he is not Brutus, he cant make them angry.

-          Antony is using reverse psychology, and he is stirring up the crowd.

-          Caesars will left 75 drachmas to each Roman citizen, worth about thirty dollars.

-          Antony had left the best argument for last; the will enticed the crowd because it left them money.

-          Caesars will also left beautiful land for the citizens to enjoy.

-          In his soliloquy, Antony said to open up mischief. He had unleashed destruction for the conspirators.

-          Antony had created mischief, the irrational fury, and he wants to see what course it will take.

Scene III

-          Cinna, the poet, sees himself eating with Caesar. This foreshadows his impending death.

-          Cinna says that hes not supposed to go out, but he doesnt because somethings driving him out (death).

-          The plebeians didnt care that this wasnt Cinna, the conspirator.

-          There is a lot of irrational rage and fury in this scene.

-          This scene shows that the innocent will die.

-          Antony has achieved his goal of getting the mob to mutiny against the conspirators.

Act V

Scene I

-          Octavius says that they had hoped that the conspirators would come to meet them. Antony had not thought that it would happen, because it would be stupid to do so.

-          Antony says that he knows their secrets.

-          Antony calls the conspirators cowards.

-          Antony orders Octavius to go to the left side of the field, but Octavius wants to go to the right. This foreshadows that the two will later fight for power.

-          L. 29: This is the War of the Words. The conspirators and avengers fight with metaphors.

-          Antony called Brutus a hypocrite, because he yelled, Long live, hail Caesar! but then killed him.

-          Cassius says that Brutus was kissing up to Caesar and killed him, just as Antony kissed up to the conspirators after the assassination.

-          Antony said that the conspirators kissed up to Caesar, and then killed him.

-          Cassius tells Brutus that they would not have been in this predicament if they had listened to Cassius and killed Antony.

-          Octavius is the peevish schoolboy.

-          Antony is the masker and the reveler.

-          Octavius tells the conspirators to fight when they have the guts to.

-          The significance of Cassiuss birthday is that he was born and will die on this day.

-          Cassius felt that he had come full circle on his life; he lived and died on his birthday.

-          Cassius had become superstitious.

-          Cassius said that two eagles came from Sardis and went to Brutuss ensign. They ate from the soldiers hands. The two eagles left, and in their place came scavengers, and the scavengers watched over Cassius and Brutus.

-          The scavengers portrayed death and danger.

-          A canopy most fatal signified a black cloud of death.

-          The portentous things were as follows:

o         It was Cassiuss birthday.

o         The eagles followed the conspirators from Sardis to Philippi, and they ate from the hands of the soldiers.

o         The eagles left, and the scavengers came and watched over them, like a black cloud of death.

-          Antony and Octavius were the two mighty eagles.

-          Cassius is ready to die today.

-          Cassius says that if the gods will allow, they will not die today, but of old age.

-          Cassius says to think of the worst thing that could happen, which would be humiliation.

-          If Cassius and Brutus lose the battle, Cassius will commit suicide.

-          Brutus thinks that suicide is cowardly and vile, because you end the pain instead of letting yourself die of natural causes or because of something you did.

-          Cassius changed Brutus mind quickly. Brutus says he would rather kill himself than be paraded in the streets of Rome.

-          If Brutus and Cassius meet again, it means that they have won, so they will smile. However, if they lose this battle, their farewell was well made.

Scene II

-          Brutus gives the legions orders to fight.

Scene III

-          Pindarus says that Cassius should run, because Antony is in their tents.

-          Titinius says that Brutus called the alarm too early.

-          Cassius thought that the cause was lost because Brutus had ordered the legions too early, and he had lost against Octaviuss legions.

-          Cassius sees his tents on fire and becomes afraid.

-          Titinius is another general, and he is Cassiuss best friend.

-          Cassius sends Titinius to see if the troops above are his troops or Antonys troops.

-          Pindarus acts as Cassiuss vision.

-          Cassius says that he has turned full circle, and that he will die today.

-          Pindarus thinks that he sees Antonys troops surrounding and dismounting Titinius from his horse. Afterwards, he thought that he heard Antonys troops yelling in joy.

-          Pindarus has misconstrued it. Brutus had won the battle against Octavius. He came off his horse, and his legions cheered him for his deed. However, in the distance, that could not be seen.

-          Cassius asks Pindarus to aid him to kill himself.

-          Cassius says that Caesar has helped to avenge his own death.

-          L. 50-51: Cassius is using the same sword to kill himself that he killed Caesar with. This is ironic, because Caesar is turning the sword against Cassius. Caesar is more powerful dead than he was alive.

-          Pindarus says that he was free, but that he would rather not be. This shows that he loved Cassius.

-          Pindarus runs away, and he is never seen again.

-          Cassius had felt that all hope was gone because he thought that Titinius had been taken, and he had lost his battle against Antony.

-          Titinius, when he sees the body of Cassius, says that Cassius had probably mistrusted his success, so he had committed suicide.

-          Titinius says that Rome is set, and Cassius is set, and that all hope is gone. This foreshadows that he will kill himself, which he does.

-          Messala tells Titinius to search for Pindarus, and Messala goes to tell Brutus what happened, although this news will not be welcomed happily.

-          Titinius understands that Cassius misconstrued everything.

-          Titinius commits suicide on Cassiuss sword. This is also ironic, because Caesar is coming and killing Cassius and Titinius, avenging his own death.

-          L. 105-108: Brutus says that Caesar is turning the conspirators swords on themselves, and that he is killing them, avenging his death.

-          L. 110-111: Brutus calls Cassius the last of the Romans, because he still believes that Cassius killed Caesar because of his love for Rome. This shows his naivety, and the fact that he never really got it.

-          Brutus tries to win back what Cassius has lost. He also says that he doesnt have the time to mourn over Cassius.

-          A proxy is a substitute.

-          Lucilius is the best friend of Brutus and Cassius. He wants to act as Brutus, and then have Antony kill him so Brutus can run away.

-          Lucilius pretends to be Brutus. He offers the soldiers money to kill him, but they do not.

-          Antony keeps Lucilius and treats him well. He wants to befriend Lucilius, because he will help later in uniting Rome. He respects Lucilius because he would have sacrificed his life for Brutus.

Scene V

-          Clitus says that Statilius gave a signal, but did not come back. He was either dead or taken by Antonys legions.

-          Brutus asks Clitus to assist him in his suicide, but Clitus declines.

-          Brutus also asks Dardanus to hold his sword for him, but Dardanus declines as well.

-          Brutus asks Volumnius to kill him, but Volumnius also declines.

-          Brutus says that Caesars ghost met him again, and that his time has come.

-          Brutus says that it is more honorable to kill himself than to let the enemy kill him.

-          Brutus says that in all of his life, all of his friends and fellow Romans had been loyal to him, so loyal that they would not assist him in his suicide.

-          Brutus says that his life has almost ended.

-          L. 56-57: Brutus tells Caesar to rest in peace, and that he didnt really want to kill Caesar, but he loved Rome more. He also tells him that he killed Caesar with half a will than he killed himself. He is feeling very guilty over the death of Caesar.

-          L. 74-81: Antony gives a mini oration over Brutus, saying how he was the noblest Roman of them all. Antony says that of all of the conspirators, Brutus was the only one with a true motive; the others were all jealous of Caesars power. He killed Caesar only for the general good for Rome. He was a real man.

-          Octavius got the last word. This foreshadows that he will win the battle over power, which he does. In all arguments, the person with the last word has won.


Act I

Scene I

1.        Where are the first and openings scenes enacted? The first and opening scenes are enacted on the streets of Rome.

2.        What are the characteristics of the commoners? The commoners and fickle, and some are naughty and knavish.

3.        Why did the tribunes dislike Caesar? The tribunes disliked Caesar because he has a lot of power.  There was civil unrest.

4.        What did the tribunes do? The tribunes protected the rights of the Roman commoners.

5.        What is the dramatic purpose of the first scene? Shakespeare wanted to show conflicting views on Caesar.  He wanted to show the unrest.

6.        What were the Romans celebrating? The Romans were celebrating Caesar killing Pompey and the feast of Lupercal.

7.        What does Flavius say that the mob is going to celebrate? Flavius says that the mob is going to celebrate Caesars victory over Pompey.  They are going against Pompey.

8.        What do the tribunes do to the commoners? The tribunes intimidate and scare the commoners, making them feel guilty.  He tells them to take posters down, and to go home and pray.

9.        What does Flavius say about Caesars power? Flavius says that if Caesars support is taken away, hell have no power.  He wants to bring down Caesars power.

10.     What is Caesar compared to in this scene? Caesar is like a bird; he has an overall view of things, and he flew high.  If you take away his feathers, he wont be able to fly.  The bird will fall.

Scene II

1.        Why does Shakespeare make three references to the soothsayer? Shakespeare makes three references to the soothsayer because he wants to show how important the message is and how Caesar has selective hearing.  It also foreshadows Caesars death on the Ides of March.

2.        Why do Brutus and Cassius assist in giving the warnings? Brutus and Cassius assist in giving the warnings because by warning Caesar, he wont suspect them of rebelling or revolting.

3.        Why doesnt Caesar listen to the soothsayers warnings? Caesar doesnt listen to the soothsayers warnings because he thinks he is immortal and cant be defeated.

4.        What is revealed in the conversation between Cassius and Brutus? In their conversation, it is revealed that Cassius is sly, persuasive, power-hungry, jealous, and manipulative.  Brutus is naive, too honorable, easily manipulated, and gullible.

5.        Why does the effect of the crowd cheering have a great effect on Brutus? The effect of the crowd cheering has a great effect on Brutus because he fears that they are choosing Caesar as king.

6.        Why does Cassius have grievances against Caesar? Cassius has grievances against Caesar because he saved Caesars life but gets nothing, and Caesar is now so powerful.

7.        What does Brutus feel about Caesar? Brutus feels torn over Caesar.  On one hand, he doesnt like his extreme power and thinks it might get out of hand, but it is his best friend, so he wants to be loyal.

8.        How does Caesar feel about Cassius? Caesar feels that Cassius thinks too much but is dangerous.  He is hungry for power.

9.        Why does Shakespeare portray Caesar as deaf in one ear? Shakespeare portrays Caesar as deaf in one ear to show his selective hearing.  It also shows that Caesar has weaknesses.

10.     Why does Caesar swoon? Caesar swoons because he had the falling sickness, or epilepsy, and he was angry.

11.     What happened to Flavius and Marullus? Flavius and Marullus are silenced.

12.     Why is the silencing of the two tribunes significant? The fact that the two are silenced is significant because it shows that whoever goes against Caesar is severely punished.  It also gives the conspiracy a reason to act.

13.     What does Cassius say that he will do? Cassius says that he will write false letters begging Brutus to join the conspiracy, supposedly from the citizens.

14.     What are Caesars strengths and weaknesses? Caesars strength is his ambition.  His weaknesses are his deafness (selective hearing) and his epilepsy.  He is powerful and egotistical.

15.     What is the first impression of Antony? What does Brutus call him? The first impression of Antony is that he is very loyal to Caesar and is a holy runner.  Brutus calls him a gamesome person and one with a quick spirit.

16.     In the dialogue, what does Cassius use to sway Brutus? In the dialogue, Cassius uses flattery and manipulation to sway Brutus.

17.   What do we learn from Cassiuss first soliloquy? From Cassiuss first soliloquy, we learn that he plans to forge letters and basically do anything to manipulate Brutus.

1.        letters and basically do anything to manipulate Brutus.

Act II

Scene I

1.        What is the dramatic function of Lucius? Lucius is the link; he brought Brutus the letters, and he told him that it was the Ides of March.

2.        What is Brutuss reasoning for killing Caesar? Brutus feels that Caesar is too ambitious and could damage Rome with his abuse of power. He will turn his back on Rome and his friends that got him to the power he holds now.

3.        Who is the scene centered? How do you know this? Justify. The scene is centered on Brutus. Its about the problems that he has, and the decisions that hes forced to make. He is the boss, and he has most of the lines.

4.        Who sent the letter Lucius brings to Brutus? What are the contents of the letter? Cassius wrote the letter, and it says, Speak, strike, redress! It tells Brutus to speak out, take action, and justify Caesars naughty deeds. It also mentions honor, and how Brutus is the only chance for the survival of Rome.

5.        What does Cassius feel about killing Antony? Cassius realizes that Antony might come bother them later because of his love for Caesar.

6.        What characteristics of Brutus are brought to light in his insistence to let Antony live? Brutus is a horrible strategist. He is extremely na´ve. He is not a butcher, he is honorable, and he has morals and values.

7.        What decision is reached as to inviting Cicero to join the conspiracy? The conspirators decide not to Cicero because he might not listen to what they wanted him to do. This is not true, of course. The real reason is that Brutus does not want him in because Brutus wanted all of the honor.

8.        Why does Brutus contradict each suggestion made by Cassius as to details for the action of the conspirators? Brutus wanted to be the leader and in charge of the conspiracy; he would get more honor this way.

9.        Which of the two, Brutus or Cassius, is wiser? Why? Cassius is wiser; he doesnt underestimate, and he pulled the entire conspiracy.

10.     What side of Caesars character is brought out by the words of Cassius and Decius? Decius said that Caesar loved flattery. Caesar was also superstitious.

11.     Who do you judge to be the villain of the play? Why? Cassius is the villain of the play. He planned the whole conspiracy, and he manipulated Brutus to join.

Scene II

1.        What is Calpurnias mental and emotional state? Calpurnia felt that Caesar should not go out of the house. The augur had told him not to, and she had had a horrible dream of Caesar being murdered. She is afraid that Caesar may meet a bad fate today.

2.        What does Caesar say about death? Caesar shares his viewpoints on death. He says that cowards die several times because they are so afraid of death that they do not live. The brave live life to the fullest and die but once. Caesar says to not be afraid of death; it will come when it comes. This is ironic because Caesar thought that he would never die, yet he told everyone not to fear death.

3.        Does Caesar yield to Calpunias pleas? At first, Caesar does not yield. He says that the omens in her dream may have been for the general, and not for him. When Calpurnia pleads him, he concedes. However, Decius comes and flatters him, so Caesar agrees to go to the Senate House.

4.        How does Decius interpret and make Caesar go to the Senate? Decius says that Caesars statue spouted blood, and Rome sucked the blood to revive themselves. He also tells Caesar that the Senate will give him the crown, and they may change their minds if he does not come. Decius also tells Caesar that the Senate will mock him, and they will think that he is a coward.

5.        Why do you feel Cassius wasnt in the group meeting Caesar? Cassius was probably not in the group so that Caesar wouldnt grow suspicious of these men. Cassius was Caesars archenemy, and it wouldnt make sense that an envious man would take you to get your crown.

6.        What is the dramatic purpose of this group? The purpose of the group was to bring Caesar to the Senate house, so that they could kill him.

7.        What is the purpose of the scene? The purpose of the scene was to show how easily Caesar was flattered. It also showed Calpurnias premonition, and how the conspirators brought Caesar to the Senate House.


1.        How does the first anonymous letter change the direction of Brutuss thoughts? He gets pushed off the fence and joins the conspiracy.

2.        What effect does Cassius produce with his insistent urging that Brutus have a better opinion of himself? Cassius flatters Brutus and mentioned honor, pushing Brutus off the fence. Brutus feels that he must kill Caesar to prove himself worthy of these expectations.

3.        Why do the conspirators give up in their plan to enlist Ciceros help in the plot against Caesar? Brutus wants all of the honor; this is the real reason. He tells them that Cicero is a leader, not a follower, so he wouldnt listen to their instructions.

4.        What is the reasoning behind Cassiuss plotting to kill Mark Antony as well as Caesar? Cassius feels that Antony might become a threat and avenge Caesars death.

5.        How does Brutus persuade Cassius not to kill Mark Antony? Brutus says that Mark Antony is gamesome, and theyll look like butchers instead of purgers. Mark Antony is but a limb of Caesar.

6.        Are Cassiuss fears that Caesar may not appear in the Capitol well founded? Explain your answer. Yes, because Caesar is superstitious. There were omens, Calpurnia had a nightmare, and the soothsayer had warned him.

7.        What does Portia do to prove her constancy and loyalty to Brutus? She stabs herself in the thigh.

8.        Why does Calpurnia object to Caesars going to the Capitol? She had a nightmare about Caesar being murdered.

9.        How many ploys does Decius use to get Caesar to go to the Senate? Explain each one. Decius uses four ploys to get Caesar to go to the Senate House. First, he reinterprets Calpurnias dreams. He says that the crown will be offered, but the Senate might change their minds if Caesar doesnt show up. The Senate will mock him, and they will call him a coward for listening to his wife.

10.     What is the one remaining hope that Caesar may yet be saved? The soothsayer had warned him, and Artemidorus wrote him a letter warning him.

11.     What evidence is there that Brutus becomes dictatorial after joining the conspiracy? He vetoes all of Cassiuss ideas; killing Antony, inviting Cicero, and the oath.

12.     How do we know that Portia is losing control of her reason? She tells Lucius to go to the Senate House, but doesnt tell him what to do. She also hears noises that no one else hears.


Scene I

1.        What is the effect of Caesars rebuff of Artemidorus on the feelings of the audience toward Caesar? The effect of Caesars rebuff of is his own death. He does not read the letter from Artemidorus; therefore he is not forewarned of the conspirators true motives. This shows dramatic irony, because everyone but Caesar knows that the conspirators are out to kill him.

2.        How does Caesar shows himself in the interview with Metellus Cimber and others begging for the repeal of banishment? Caesar is firm and unyielding to their cries and needs of help. He says that he will not act unjustly, even for his friends.

3.        What does Caesar say of himself? Caesar says that he is as constant as the Northern Star, and that he is like Mt. Olympus, unmoving, steadfast, and unyielding.

4.        How is Cinna rebuked? Cinna is rebuked by Caesar asking if he can perform the impossible. Caesar asks Cinna if he can move him (Caesar), the mountain.

5.        Who stabbed Caesar first? Casca stabbed Caesar first.

6.        How does Caesar feel on seeing Brutus among the assassins? How do you know this? Caesar is surprised and betrayed when he sees Brutus among the assassins. He feels that he has lost everything. If his best friend wants to kill him, he has nothing to live for and might as well give up.

7.        How does Caesar bear himself at his death? Caesar gives in completely, and he doesnt put up a fight. He is calm, and he dies honorably.

8.        What is the climax of this play? The climax of this play is Caesars death.

9.        What is the dramatic significance of the entrance of the servant? Antony sent his servant so that Brutus would vouch for Antonys safety. He wanted to make sure that the conspirators werent going to kill him. This shows the beginning of the downward action.

10.     What message from Antony does the servant bring? The servant told the conspirators that Antony would follow what they said, but that they had to vouch for Antonys safety. The servant also told the conspirators that Antony wanted to speak at Caesars funeral.

11.     What light does this throw on Cassiuss estimate of Antony? Cassius now thinks that Antony is up to something and he is cautious, and amply warns Brutus. Cassius was wise to have wanted to kill Antony.

12.     Why do you interpret Antony to be friendly to the conspirators? Antony is trying to get close to the conspirators so he can easily avenge Caesars death without suspicion. In doing this, they will let him speak at the funeral, and they will vouch for his safety. He will able to sway the crowd at Caesars funeral.

13.     What request is made of Brutus by Antony? Antony requests to speak at Caesars funeral.

14.     Is Brutus wise in granting the request? No, Brutus is unwise in granting his request. After the funeral, the crowds go against Brutus and the conspirators.

15.     After the conspirators left, what tributes does Antony pay Caesar, and what does it foretell will be the results of the permission to speak? Antony says that he will speak against the conspirators while still listening to their conditions. He apologizes to Caesar for being so kind to the conspirators. He says that he will unleash destruction and kill the conspirators. He prophesizes chaos in the near future.

16.     What characteristic of Antony is revealed? Antony will stop at nothing to avenge his best friends death. He is vengeful, sly, crafty, and manipulative.

Scene II

1.        What seems to be the general feeling concerning Caesars death? The plebeians want to be informed of why Caesar had to die.

2.        What motive does Brutus give in his part in the assassination of Caesar? Is he truthful in what he says? Brutus tells the crowd that he loved Caesar, but loved Rome more; therefore, he had to kill Caesar. He also said that he killed Caesar for his ambition. Brutus is truthful in what he says; he is too honorable to lie.

3.        How does his motive contrast with the conspirators? The conspirators did not share the same motive as Brutus; they all had personal grudges against Caesar. Brutus was the only one that genuinely thought that he was saving Rome. The other conspirators were in for personal reasons or personal gain. None of the conspirators were honest; they said that they were saving Rome, but they had their own agendas.

4.        How does Antony subtly destroy the effect of Brutuss speech? Antony tells the crowd that they will be heirs of Caesar. He keeps on emphasizing that Brutus and the conspirators are very honorable, using total sarcasm. He uses rhetorical devices, asking unanswerable questions to the crowd. He disproves Caesars ambition and asks why Caesar had to die.

Scene III

1.        What elements of the Roman mob is brought out in this scene? One can clearly see from this scene that the Roman mob is bloodthirsty, and will kill anyone that sounds like they were a conspirator. The Roman mob kills Cinna the poet, even though he was not a conspirator. This shows that they had irrational rage, and didnt care if Cinna was innocent or guilty; because of his name, they killed him. They are merciless, and are blindly following Antony.

2.        What has Shakespeare accomplished in Act III? Shakespeare has shown the reader or the audience that Antony is very clever and employs several rhetorical devices to sway the crowd. He also shows that the crowd is very fickle, and the reader sees a shift of leadership.

3.        What is the significance of the attack on Cinna the poet? The significance of this attack was to show that the citizens and Antony will destroy anything and anyone somewhat resembling the conspirators. It also shows that they are merciless.


1.        Who thwarts Artemidorus in his attempt to warn Caesar of the plot against him? Decius prevents Artemidorus from warning Caesar before his assassination.

2.        What happens to make Cassius believe that the news of their conspiracy has been discovered? Cassius thinks that Popilius Lena may know about their conspiracy, and that he may warn Caesar before he is killed.

3.        Does Cassius give himself half-heartedly to this conspiracy, or does he commit himself fully? Cite evidence from the text to support your claim. Cassius gives himself half-heartedly to the conspiracy. He does not take charge of it; he listens to Brutuss terrible strategies, and he follows them. This shows that he is not really that concerned about the results of this, because he doesnt argue his points; he just gives in to Brutus all of the time.

4.        What does Metellus Cimber do as a ploy to engage Caesars attention? Metellus tells Caesar to bring Publius, his brother, back home.

5.        What kind of self-image does Caesar have? Caesar has a very egotistical self-image. He thinks that he is invincible and all-powerful, and nothing can destroy him.

6.        Et tu, Brute? Then fall Caesar! is a remarkably well-known statement, perhaps because Shakespeare is able to pack so few words with such a wealth of feeling. What, in your opinion, does this phrase mean? In my opinion, this statement is the turning point of the book. It shows that Caesar completely gave in to Brutus and realized that Brutus had turned his back on him.

7.        How do the murderers explain the death of Caesar? The assassins agree with Brutuss reason; they say that they loved Caesar, but loved Rome more. Obviously, this is not true. They say that they killed Caesar so they could save Rome from a tyrannical dictator.

8.        Calpurnias vision of the men bathing in Caesars blood comes true. Why does Brutus make the conspirators bathe in the blood of Caesar? Brutus tells the conspirators to bathe in Caesars blood because they are proud of what they did for Rome. They are sparing Rome from a dictator, and they want to boast about their feat.

9.        What does Mark Antony do when he first confronts the conspirators? Antony asks the conspirators for a vouch for his safety, and he asks them for permission to speak at Caesars funeral.

10.     How do we know that Mark Antonys show of friendship for the conspirators is just an act? We know that Mark Antony is only acting because in his soliloquy later in the scene, he reveals his true motives. Also, he is Caesars best friend, and would not side with Caesars murderers.

11.     How does Brutus defend his participation in Caesars death? He tells the crowd that his reason for killing Caesar was because although he loved Caesar, he loved Rome more. He also said that he killed Caesar for his ambition, and that he would kill himself if Rome wanted him too. He truly thought that he was saving Rome.

12.     What is Mark Antonys real objective in asking to speak at Caesars funeral? Antonys real objective is to sway the crowd, get them angry, and get them to revolt against the conspirators and kill them, avenging Caesars death.

13.     At Caesars funeral, Brutus promises to kill himself when it will prove beneficial to the country. Given his personality and moral character, do you think he would actually do it? Yes, I think Brutus would commit suicide for the good of Rome. He is too honorable and loves Rome too much to not listen to the commoners and what they have to say. Brutus loves Rome so much that he would do anything for his country, including taking his own life.

14.     How does Mark Antony change the crowds opinion and get them on his side? Antony disproves Caesars ambition, citing four examples. Firstly, Caesar, when he was presented with ransom money, put it in the treasury instead of keeping it. Secondly, he wept with the citizens, showing that he cared for them. Thirdly, Caesar refused the crown three times. Lastly, Caesar had left money and land for the citizens in his will, which really caught the citizens attention. Also, Antony used rhetorical devices and asked rhetorical questions, and manipulated the people.

15.     What is the dramatic purpose behind Act III, Scene III? The dramatic purpose behind this scene is to show that the citizens have become so ruthless and merciless that they will kill anyone that even somewhat resembles the conspirators. They have irrational rage and fury, and they will stop at nothing to kill the conspirators.

16.     What is ironic in Caesars death, considering what he had said just before? The irony in Caesars death was that he was killed right after he said that he was as constant as the Northern Star, and could not be moved.

17.     What did the conspirators proclaim in the streets to justify their deed? The conspirators yelled, Liberty! Freedom! Tyranny is dead! Ambitions debt is paid!

18.     What does Antonys servant tell Brutus? Antonys servant tells Brutus that Antony will follow their instructions. He also asks for a vouch for Antonys safety, and the reason that they killed Caesar. The servant also says that Antony seeks permission to speak at the funeral.

19.     What are the conditions of Antonys speech? Antony has to tell the crowd that he is only speaking by permission of the conspirators. He can only speak well of Caesar, and he is not to blame the conspirators. Lastly, he is to speak at the same podium as Brutus, right after him.

20.     What is in Antonys now famous Friends, countrymen, lead me your ears speech? In Antonys speech, he tells the crowd that the conspirators were very honorable men (sarcasm), and he disproves Caesars ambition; he refused the crown, left the citizens in his will, cried for the sorrows of Rome, and put the ransom money in Romes treasury.

Act IV

Scenes I and II

1.        Who are the avengers of the murder of Caesar? The avengers of the murder of Caesar are the second triumvirate.

2.        Where do they meet? The avengers meet at Antonys house.

3.        What are they doing? The avengers are discussing whom they need to eliminate to prevent rebellions, and who will live.

4.        What does Antony intend to do with Lepidus? Antony intended to kick Lepidus out and rule Rome with Octavius, and take his power away. He wants the power for himself.

5.        Where does Scene 2 take place? Scene 2 takes place in a camp near Sardis, near Brutuss tent.

6.        What are the relations of Brutus and Cassius? Brutus and Cassius are still great friends, but Cassius is beginning to worry about their safety.

Scene II

1.        Why was Lepidus in the triumvirate? Lepidus was in the triumvirate because he was a famous and great army general. However, Antony wanted to use Lepidus as an errand boy and a scapegoat.

2.        Which of Antonys traits are seen here? Antonys ruthlessness, cruelty, and hunger of power are seen here.

3.        Are Antony and Octavian fitted to work together? How do you know? Antony and Octavian are not fitted to work together. Antony felt that Lepidus wasnt strong enough, but Octavian thought that Lepidus was a valiant soldier. They were both power-hungry.

4.        What does Antony propose to do? Antony proposes to make an army of their best friends.

5.        What is the effect on the triumvirate of the possession of power? The effect on the triumvirate of the possession of power was their killing anyone who could remotely be an obstacle, including their family. They were extremely greedy.

6.        What were the traits of the triumvirate? The triumvirate was ruthless, angry, and cruel. They became greedy (they took money from Caesars will).

7.        How does Antony contrast to the Antony in Act III? Antony contrasts from the Antony in Act III in that Antony is now more ruthless and bloodthirsty. He sounds a lot more serious in this act. In Act III, he was avenging for Caesar, but now, he wants some power for himself.

8.        What great idea does Brutus bring up? Brutus tells Cassius to go into the tent to argue, because if the soldiers had seen them fighting, they might have become uneasy and disloyal to their generals.

9.        What is the significance in the discord of the conspiracy? The significance in the discord of the conspiracy is that they are starting to become less powerful, a like a hot friend cooling. It shows the downfall of the conspiracy.

10.     What do we learn from the dialogue between Lucilius and Brutus? From the dialogue between Lucilius and Brutus, we learn that Brutus and Cassius are hot friends cooling.

Scene III

1.        Interpret the quote, Remember March, the ides of March remember./Did not great Julius bleed for justice sake? Brutus said, Remember March; the ides of March He meant that he killed Caesar for his ambition, and if Cassius continued to take bribes and be ambitious, he would suffer the same fate. It also shows Brutuss extreme naivety; he still doesnt get the fact that he was the only honorable one.

2.        What is the dramatic effect of the poets entrance and advice? The dramatic effect of the poets entrance and advice is that the conspiracy is falling apart, and it shows the downfall of the conspiracy. It was to break the tension.

3.        When the poet leaves, what sad news does Brutus tell Cassius? When the poet leaves, Brutus tells Cassius that Portia has committed suicide.

4.        What is the dramatic function of Messala? What is the irony revealed by him? The dramatic function of Messala is that he brings the news that Portia is dead, and that a hundred senators had been killed, including Cicero. The irony revealed by him is that Cicero had no relation whatsoever to the conspiracy, but he had been killed anyways. It was situation irony.

5.        What information does Messala give? Messala gives the information that Portia is dead, and that Antony has killed a hundred senators.

6.        Why was the second allusion made to Portias death? The second allusion was made to Portias death because Shakespeare wanted to reinforce the downfall of the conspiracy. Portia was worried about Brutus, and she did not want to see her husband die.

7.        What reasons did Brutus give in favor of marching to Philippi? Brutus was in favor of fighting at Philippi, and he gave the following reasons; Brutuss army had taken livestock from towns along the way, so the townspeople would join Antonys army, Brutuss army was at a brimful, their motive was ripe, the enemy was increasing daily, their army was a at a high and ready to decline, and they should seize the moment and seize the opportunity.

8.        What reasons did Cassius give urging against going to Philippi? Cassius urged against going to Philippi by saying that Antonys army would be exhausted, while theirs would be rested and ready to attack.

9.        What decision was reached? The decision reached was that they would march to Philippi. This was a mistake because the two of them would later die at Philippi.

10.     Why does Cassius agree to the march? Cassius agreed to the march because he loved Brutus. He was distraught because of his sisters death.

11.     What was the significance of Caesars ghost? The significance of Caesars ghost was that Brutus would die at Philippi. Cinna the poet had dreamt that he had dined with Caesar, and he had died minutes later. Caesars ghost said that they would meet at Philippi, which foreshadows Brutuss death at Philippi. It also showed Brutuss guilt over Caesars death.

12.     What attributes of Brutus are seen in this scene? The attributes of Brutus seen in this scene are his anger, sorrow, stress, disgust, honor, naivety, bad strategy, tiredness, wornness, guilt, and fear.

13.     What charge does Brutus bring against Cassius? Brutus accuses Cassius of writing a letter supporting his guilty friend Lucius Pella, denying Brutuss request for money, and taking bribes.

14.     What warning does Brutus give Cassius? Brutus warns Cassius that he will kill him if Cassius continues to take bribes.

15.     How does Caesar reply? Cassius tells Brutus not to persecute him. He denies these actions first, and then admits them later.

16.     How does Cassius feel toward Brutus? Cassius is mean, angry, sarcastic, and then nice and sympathetic towards Brutus. He loves Brutus, but he is angry.

17.     How is the quarrel between Cassius and Brutus significant in the scene? The quarrel showed that the conspiracy was falling apart and failing, and it wasnt as unified. It foreshadows the retribution of the avengers.

Act V

Scene I

1.        How is your estimate of Cassius affected by the servants love for him? I now realize that he is not as bad as he seemed in the beginning of the play. Although he remains the villain of the play, the reader sees kindness in his heart.

2.        What was the effect on Octavius of the attack of Brutus? Octavius was defeated by Brutuss legions.

3.        What was the effect on Cassius of the attack of Brutus? Cassius committed suicide because he thought that Brutus had lost, and that Titinius had been taken by Antony. He killed himself, because he felt that there was nothing left to live for.

4.        What does Titinius do when he finds Cassius dead? When Titinius finds Cassius dead, he sends Messala to tell Brutus about Cassiuss death, and then he kills himself on Cassiuss sword, with the same sword that killed Caesar.

5.        Was Titinius right when he said that with Cassiuss death, the cause was lost? Justify your answer. Titinius was right when he said that with Cassiuss death, the cause was lost. Cassius gave his heart and soul into this conspiracy, and now that he was dead, the conspiracy had no backbone. Cassius was also the brains of the conspiracy. He had good strategy. At this point, the conspiracy has no hope.

6.        What significance is there in Brutuss words, O Julius Caesar, thou art mighty yet? Brutus sees that Caesar is killing the conspirators, and he is avenging his own death. Hes more powerful dead than he was alive.

7.        What does Brutus call Cassius the last of all the Romans? Brutus calls Cassius the last of all the Romans because he still thinks that Cassius killed Caesar for honorable reasons. This shows that Brutus was so na´ve, and he never realized that he was the only person that killed Caesar because he loved Rome.

8.        Why does Lucilius act as a proxy for Brutus? Lucilius acts as a proxy for Brutus so that Antony will kill him, and Brutus may be able to escape.

9.        How did Antony treat him and why? Antony treated Lucilius well because he wants to befriend Lucilius. Later, after the war is over, he will need Lucilius to unite the nation.

Scene III

1.        What was the irony in Cassiuss suicide? The irony in Cassiuss suicide is that he killed himself with the same sword that killed Caesar. This shows that Caesar is still powerful, and he is avenging his own death. Cassius also killed himself for no reason, as Brutus had won the battle, and his friend had not been taken. He also died on his birthday, showing that his life had gone full circle.

2.        What is the final picture given of Cassius? The final picture given of Cassius is a kind and nice man. The reader feels pity for him.

3.        Does Brutus ever come to the realization that he was manipulated into the conspiracy? How do you know? No, he never realized it. He called Cassius the last of all the Romans; he thought that Cassius had killed Caesar because he loved Rome.

4.        Interpret the quote, This day I breathed first My life is run his compass. When Cassius says, This day I breathed first My life is run his compass. He means that he will die on his birthday, and his life has come to a full circle.

5.        Interpret the quote, O setting sun Our day is gone;. When Titinius says, O setting sun Our day is gone; he means that without Cassius, all hope for the conspiracy is gone.

6.        Interpret the quote, O Julius Caesar, thou art mighty yet! When Brutus says, O Julius Caesar, thou art mighty yet! he means that Caesar is still powerful in death; he is killing the conspirators, turning their own swords against themselves.

7.        Interpret the quote, Are yet two Romans should breed thy fellow. When Brutus says, Are yet two Romans should breed thy fellow. He means that Cassius was the last of all the Romans. He thinks that Cassius was the last noble Roman, because he saved Rome from a dictator. This shows Brutuss naivety, and the fact that he never really realized that he was the only honorable conspirator, or that he was manipulated.


1.        What evidence do you find in Act 5 of the dissension between Octavius and Antony? What dissension between Cassius and Brutus does it parallel? The evidence the reader finds in Act 5 of the dissension between Octavius and Antony is when Octavius wants the right side of the field, while Antony tells him to go to the left side. This dissension parallels Cassius and Brutus when they argue over taking bribes and supporting Lucius Pella.

2.        What is the dramatic purpose of the exchange of insults among the four generals? The purpose of the War of the Words is to build up suspense for the upcoming battle.

3.        What is the new view of life that Cassius expressed in Act 5 Scene 1? He is now superstitious and not Epicurean. He believes that his life has come full circle, and he believes in the eagle occurrence.

4.        What does the farewell dialogue between Brutus and Cassius foreshadow? It foreshadows that they will never see each other again, and that the farewell will have been done well. It also shows the downfall of the conspiracy.

5.        What is the irony in the suicide of Cassius? Cassiuss suicide is ironic because it was his birthday, and his life had come full circle. Also, he killed himself for no reason, because his servant has misconstrued Brutuss battle. Finally, he killed himself on the sword that Caesar had died on, showing that Caesar was more powerful in death than in life.

6.        What does Lucilius try to do for Brutus? How does Antony treat him and why? Lucilius tries to impersonate Brutus so that Antonys legions will kill him, and Brutus can die honorably by killing himself. Antony treats him well, because if the two become friends, Lucilius will help Antony to unite the nation later.

7.        What purpose was served by assigning Octavius the last words of the play? The purpose served was to show that he had the last word, and he will win the battle for power later.

8.        What were the bad omens Cassius sees during the march to Philippi? What do they signify? Cassius sees two mighty eagles (Antony and Octavius) escorting them to Philippi. They then proceeded to eat out of the soldiers hands. One day, they disappeared, and in their place came scavengers, which represented a black cloud of death over them, showing that the conspirators will die.

9.        How does Titinius show his grief for Cassius? Titinius puts a garland on Cassiuss body, and then kills himself on Cassiuss sword.

10.     Why does Antony call Brutus the noblest Roman of them all? Antony calls Brutus the noblest Roman of them all because he felt that Brutus had pure reasons and no ulterior motives. He realizes that Brutus was manipulated into the conspiracy.

11.     Why did Pindarus stab Cassius? Pindarus stabbed Cassius because he loved Cassius, and Cassius told him to.

12.     What causes Titinius to say, The sun of Rome is set!? Titinius says, The sun of Rome is set! because he feels that without Cassius, the conspiracy has no hope.

13.     Who do the soldiers believe they have captured in Scene IV? Who is it really? The soldiers believe that they have captured Brutus. However, it is really Lucilius.

14.     How does Brutus die? Brutus impales himself on his sword, which is held by his servant, Strato.

15.     Why does Antony say Brutus was the noblest Roman of them all? Antony says that Brutus was the noblest Roman of them all because he was the only one with pure motives. Antony realizes that Brutus had been manipulated into the conspiracy, and that the rest of the conspirators had ulterior motives.

16.     In the first scene in this act, Octavius and Mark Antony clash on military strategy, paralleling the conflict of Brutus and Cassius. Why do Antony and Octavius fight? Antony tells Octavius to take the left side of the field, but Octavius wants to take the right side.

17.     Describe Cassiuss most striking superstition. How does it arise? It was Cassiuss birthday, so his life had come full circle. It arises out of ???

18.     In a discussion with Cassius, Brutus first discounts the possibility of committing suicide to escape defeat at the hands of the enemy. Later, he embraces the idea of suicide. How do you account for his change in attitude? Brutus realizes that he doesnt want to be paraded in the streets of Rome, and killing himself would be more honorable.

19.     What fatal tactical error does Brutus make on the battlefield? He attacked too soon, leaving Cassius open to attack from Antony.

20.     How does Cassius die? He tells his servant, Pindarus, to stab him.

21.     What does Brutus say when he sees Cassiuss corpse? He says, O Julius Caesar, thou art mighty yet! showing that Caesar was more powerful dead than alive.

22.     How does Lucilius demonstrate his loyalty to Brutus? He acts as a proxy for Brutus, and he risks his life so that Brutus will not be humiliated.

23.     How does Brutus die? He runs into his sword, which is held by his servant, Strato.

24.     What is the message conveyed in Mark Antonys speech which begins: This was the noblest Roman of them all? Antony realizes that Brutus had pure motives, and that he had been manipulated into the conspiracy.



What means this shouting? I do fear the people
Choose Caesar for their king.


Men at some time are masters of their fates.


Let me have men about me that are fat,

Sleek-headed men, and such as sleep-a-nights.

Yond Cassius has a lean and hungry look.

He thinks too much. Such men are dangerous.




Well, Brutus, thou art noble. Yet I see

















Remember March; the ides of March remember.

Did not great Julius bleed for justice sake?


There is a tide in the affairs of men

Which, taken at the flood, leads on to fortune;

Omitted, all the voyage of their life

Is bound in shallows and in miseries.

On such a full sea are we now afloat,

And we must take the current when it serves

Or lose our ventures.


Caesar, thou art revenged

Even with the sword that killed thee.


O Julius Caesar, thou art mighty yet;

Thy spirit walks abroad and turns our swords

In our own proper entrails.


Are yet two Romans living such as these?

The last of all the Romans, fare thee well.

It is impossible that ever Rome

Should breed thy fellow.


Caesar, now be still.

I killed not thee with half so good a will.


This was the noblest Roman of them all.

All the conspirators save only he

Did that they did in envy of great Caesar.

He only in a general honest thought

And common good to all made one of them.

His life was gentle and the elements

So mixed in him that nature might stand up

And say to all the world, This was a man.

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